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C++ Flow Control

Flow control in C++ refers to the mechanisms and statements that allow you to control the order in which instructions are executed in a program. It enables you to make decisions, loop through code, and control the flow of your program based on certain conditions. There are several key flow control structures in C++:

  1. Conditional Statements:
  • if statement: Allows you to execute a block of code if a certain condition is true.
  • else statement: Used in conjunction with if to specify an alternative block of code to execute if the condition is false.
  • else if statement: Used to check additional conditions after the initial if condition.
  • switch statement: Used to select one of many code blocks to execute based on the value of an expression.

Example of an if statement:

C++
int x = 10;
if (x > 5) {
    // This code block will execute because x is greater than 5.
    cout << "x is greater than 5." << endl;
} else {
    // This block will execute if the condition is false.
    cout << "x is not greater than 5." << endl;
}
  1. Looping Statements:
  • for loop: Repeats a block of code a specified number of times.
  • while loop: Repeats a block of code as long as a specified condition is true.
  • do-while loop: Repeats a block of code at least once, then continues as long as a specified condition is true.

Example of a for loop:

C++
for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    // This code block will execute 5 times.
    cout << "Iteration " << i << endl;
}

Example of a while loop:

C++
int n = 0;
while (n < 5) {
    // This code block will execute as long as n is less than 5.
    cout << "n is " << n << endl;
    n++;
}
  1. Control Statements:
  • break statement: Used to exit from a loop or a switch statement prematurely.
  • continue statement: Skips the current iteration of a loop and proceeds to the next iteration.
  • return statement: Exits a function and returns a value.

Example of a break statement:

C++
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    if (i == 5) {
        break; // Exit the loop when i is 5.
    }
    cout << "i is " << i << endl;
}

These flow control structures allow you to create more dynamic and responsive C++ programs by controlling the flow of execution based on conditions, loops, and decision-making.

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