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C++ Math Functions

The C++ can perform mathematical operations using various built-in math functions provided by the Standard Library’s <cmath> or <math.h> (for C compatibility) header. These functions cover a wide range of mathematical operations, including basic arithmetic, trigonometry, logarithms, exponentiation, and more. Here are some commonly used math functions:

  1. Basic Arithmetic Functions:
  • +, -, *, /: These are the basic arithmetic operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, respectively.
  1. Trigonometric Functions:
  • sin(x): Computes the sine of x (in radians).
  • cos(x): Computes the cosine of x (in radians).
  • tan(x): Computes the tangent of x (in radians). You can also find their inverse counterparts using asin(), acos(), and atan().
  1. Exponentiation Functions:
  • exp(x): Calculates the exponential function e^x.
  • log(x): Computes the natural logarithm (base e) of x.
  • log10(x): Computes the base-10 logarithm of x.
  1. Power Functions:
  • pow(x, y): Raises x to the power of y.
  1. Square Root:
  • sqrt(x): Calculates the square root of x.
  1. Absolute Value:
  • fabs(x): Returns the absolute (positive) value of x.
  1. Rounding Functions:
  • ceil(x): Rounds x up to the nearest integer.
  • floor(x): Rounds x down to the nearest integer.
  • round(x): Rounds x to the nearest integer (round half up).
  1. Random Number Generation:
  • rand(): Generates a pseudo-random integer between 0 and RAND_MAX. Remember to seed the random number generator with srand() before using rand().
  1. Other Functions:
  • min(x, y): Returns the smaller of x and y.
  • max(x, y): Returns the larger of x and y.
  • abs(x): Equivalent to fabs(x); returns the absolute value of x.
  • fmod(x, y): Computes the remainder when x is divided by y.

To use these math functions, you typically include the <cmath> header and call them with appropriate arguments. For example:

C++
#include <iostream>
#include <cmath>

int main() {
    double x = 2.5;
    double y = 3.0;

    double result = pow(x, y); // Compute x^y
    std::cout << "Result: " << result << std::endl;

    return 0;
}

Remember that mathematical functions like sin, cos, and exp often expect angles to be in radians, so you may need to convert degrees to radians if necessary. Additionally, floating-point arithmetic may introduce some precision issues, so be aware of potential rounding errors in your calculations.

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