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C++ Operators

The C++ operators are symbols that perform operations on one or more operands (variables or values). C++ supports a wide variety of operators that can be categorized into different groups based on their functionality. Here are some of the most commonly used operators in C++:

  1. Arithmetic Operators:
  • + (Addition)
  • - (Subtraction)
  • * (Multiplication)
  • / (Division)
  • % (Modulus or Remainder)
  1. Relational Operators:
  • == (Equal to)
  • != (Not equal to)
  • < (Less than)
  • > (Greater than)
  • <= (Less than or equal to)
  • >= (Greater than or equal to)
  1. Logical Operators:
  • && (Logical AND)
  • || (Logical OR)
  • ! (Logical NOT)
  1. Assignment Operators:
  • = (Assignment)
  • += (Addition assignment)
  • -= (Subtraction assignment)
  • *= (Multiplication assignment)
  • /= (Division assignment)
  • %= (Modulus assignment)
  1. Increment and Decrement Operators:
  • ++ (Increment)
  • -- (Decrement)
  1. Conditional (Ternary) Operator:
  • condition ? expr1 : expr2 (Conditional operator, also known as the ternary operator)
  1. Bitwise Operators:
  • & (Bitwise AND)
  • | (Bitwise OR)
  • ^ (Bitwise XOR)
  • ~ (Bitwise NOT)
  • << (Left shift)
  • >> (Right shift)
  1. Member Access Operators:
  • . (Dot operator for accessing members of a class or structure)
  • -> (Arrow operator for accessing members through pointers)
  1. Other Operators:
  • sizeof (Size of an object or data type)
  • , (Comma operator, used to separate expressions in a statement)
  • () (Function call operator)
  • [] (Array subscript operator)
  • & (Address-of operator)
  • * (Dereference operator)
  1. Type Casting Operators:
    • static_cast
    • dynamic_cast
    • const_cast
    • reinterpret_cast

These operators are used in various combinations to perform mathematical calculations, make logical decisions, and manipulate data in C++ programs. The specific behavior of an operator depends on the data types of its operands and its context within an expression.

Here are some examples of how operators are used in C++:

C++
int a = 5, b = 3;
int sum = a + b;         // Addition
int diff = a - b;        // Subtraction
int product = a * b;     // Multiplication
int quotient = a / b;    // Division
int remainder = a % b;   // Modulus

bool isGreater = (a > b);  // Relational operator
bool andResult = (true && false); // Logical AND
bool orResult = (true || false);  // Logical OR
bool notResult = !true;           // Logical NOT

a++;          // Increment
b--;          // Decrement

int max = (a > b) ? a : b;  // Conditional operator (ternary)

int x = 10, y = 3;
int bitwiseAnd = x & y;   // Bitwise AND
int bitwiseOr = x | y;    // Bitwise OR
int bitwiseXor = x ^ y;   // Bitwise XOR
int bitwiseNot = ~x;      // Bitwise NOT
int leftShift = x << 2;   // Left shift by 2 bits
int rightShift = x >> 1;  // Right shift by 1 bit

Understanding operators is fundamental to writing C++ code, as they provide the means to perform various operations on data, control program flow, and manipulate memory at a low level.

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