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C++ Strings

The C++ strings are sequences of characters represented using the std::string class from the Standard Library. C++ provides a convenient and powerful way to work with strings using the std::string class, which is part of the Standard Template Library (STL).

Here are some common operations and features related to C++ strings:

  1. String Declaration and Initialization: You can declare and initialize strings using various methods:
C++
 std::string str1 = "Hello, World!";
 std::string str2("C++ Strings");
  1. String Concatenation: You can concatenate strings using the + operator or the append() member function:
C++
 std::string result = str1 + " " + str2;
 str1.append(" and C++ are fun!");
  1. String Length: You can find the length of a string using the length() or size() member functions:
C++
 int len = str1.length();
  1. Accessing Characters: Individual characters in a string can be accessed using the [] operator or the at() member function:
C++
 char firstChar = str1[0];
 char secondChar = str1.at(1);
  1. Substrings: You can extract substrings from a string using the substr() member function:
C++
 std::string sub = str1.substr(0, 5); // Extracts "Hello" from str1
  1. String Comparison: You can compare strings using comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=) or the compare() member function:
C++
 if (str1 == str2) {
     // Strings are equal
 }
  1. Searching and Finding: You can search for substrings within a string using functions like find() and rfind():
C++
 size_t found = str1.find("World"); // Returns the position of "World" in str1
  1. String Modification: You can modify a string by replacing substrings using functions like replace():
C++
 str1.replace(7, 5, "Universe"); // Replaces "World" with "Universe" in str1
  1. String Input and Output: You can read and write strings using standard input and output streams:
C++
 std::cout << "Enter your name: ";
 std::cin >> str1;
  1. String Iteration: You can iterate over the characters in a string using loops: for (char c : str1) { std::cout << c << " "; }
  2. String Manipulation: C++ provides several functions in the <cstring> header for string manipulation, such as strcpy(), strcat(), strlen(), and more. However, it’s often more convenient and safer to use std::string for most string operations.

C++ strings (std::string) provide dynamic memory management, automatic resizing, and a wide range of member functions, making them a versatile choice for working with text data. They handle memory allocation and deallocation, which simplifies string manipulation and reduces the risk of memory-related bugs.

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